Friday, May 22, 2020
Depression is Not a Great Thing Depression, a serious epidemic in the nation, is a sickness that makes one feel sad or upset throughout the course of their daily lives. This illness called depression affects many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, does it not? This is here to analyze and explore how depression is one of many serious factors in society, why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to know about, how it affects people, and what ways there are to help them. Depression, the most common form of mental illness known has taken over a quarter of the American population, ranging from teenagers to adults, itÃ¢â¬â¢s highly different from regular sadness which just goes through everyday life, and if left untreated, it could last a lifetime with people diagnosed and may neverÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Depression Symptoms and Warning SignsÃ¢â¬ .) Though, these specific symptoms vary from person to person. Those with depression, their illness do tend to get in the way in daily life, both for them and their families. Additionally, there is help and medications that can help a person cope with their illness. Ã¢â¬Å"The first step to getting appropriate treatment is to visit a doctor or a mental health specialist.Ã¢â¬ (National Institute of Mental Health. Depression.) As said before, there are medicines for depression and hereÃ¢â¬â¢s some antidepressants to name a few, such as SSRIs, TCAs , Tetracyclics, Dopamine Reuptake Blocker, a nd MAOIs. If medicines donÃ¢â¬â¢t provide much help, then one can go to a mental health specialist as the next step for treatment. The first priority to check with their therapist is their connection with them. The right therapist for them will be caring and supportive. There is also talk therapy provided. It gives the depressed patient skills to prevent their illness from coming back. These treatments are available for anyone suffering from depression but most likely, the majority of people diagnosed wonÃ¢â¬â¢t seek help. Even with
Friday, May 8, 2020
Troys Battle with Anger in August Wilsons Fences Conflicts and tensions between family members and friends are key elements in August Wilsons play, Fences. The main character, Troy Maxon, has struggled his whole life to be a responsible person and fulfill his duties in any role that he is meant to play. In turn, however, he has created conflict through his forbidding manner. The author illustrates how the effects of Troys stern upbringing cause him to pass along a legacy of bitterness and anger which creates tension and conflict in his relationships with his family. Troy?s relationship with his father was one, which produced much tension, and had a strong influence on Troy?s relationships with his loved ones as anÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The members of the family that makes the most effort to keep the family level is Troy?s wife, Rose. The narrator tells us that Rose is a gentle woman. She cares a great deal for her family and her husband, despite the challenge of making her home a positive environment under the strains of a man with such impossible qualities. The author explains her reasons for enduring Troy by saying that ? her devotion to him stems from her recognition of the possibilities of her life without him: a succession of abusive men and their babies, a life of partying and running the streets, the Church, or aloneness with its attendant pain and frustration? (526; I, 1). In light of the fact that Troy is a good man and provides for their family in a way of his duty, Rose loves and supports him and ?either ignores or forgiv es his faults, only some of which she recognizes? (526; I, 1). Despite his love and respect for his wife, Troy acts extremely disrespectfully towards Rose. Due to the lack of love and respect that Troy was shown as a boy, he does not know feelings to his family. He talks down to his wife as if she were a child, while at the same time he declares his love for her to his friend, Bono. Troy?s fault, however, in declaring his love for his wife and family. He says, ?I love Rose? (555; II, 1), but when the time comes for him to show his love, he only disrespects her. When Rose asks Troy what he and Bono are talking about oneShow MoreRelatedEssay about Relationships, Racism, and Drama in August Wilsons Fences1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn August WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Fences, relationships were a big part of the story because every character had a different kind of relationship with each other. Troy had a relationship with every character in the play and it was not the same kind of relationship. T roy Have a complicated relationship with every character in the play because troy character is difficult and it cause conflicts with everyone character in Fences (Blumenthal). Troy has a personal relationship with his self and it was kind of a fictitious
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(138) " of each degree is cognitive, rhetorical issues of audience and intent are every bit appropriate and can be specified for any assignment\." The intent of this survey programme is to find if pupils from the simple degree of Hin Hua High School ( Chinese Independent School ) improved in their ability to compose in English after holding studied specifically developed course of study. The 7-hour remedial programme is to be conducted one time the academic section releases the concluding appraisal classs. Fifteen pupils with the lowest mark were selected utilizing the standard method to undergo the remedial programme. We will write a custom essay sample on REMEDIAL WRITING PROGRAMME FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS or any similar topic only for you Order Now the importance of all six major facets of composing measured in the English Test which comprises chiefly punctuation, grammar and use, sentence construction, scheme, organisation, and manner. It is believed by go toing the remedial programme selected pupils would be able to demo the ability to do and joint judgements by taking place on an issue or job. Besides prolonging a place by concentrating on the subject throughout the authorship. They are alson expected to develop a place by showing support or grounds utilizing specific inside informations and do illations based on support or grounds. Most significantly, they should be able to form and present thoughts in a logical manner by logically grouping and sequencing thoughts. Hence communicate clearly by utilizing linguistic communication efficaciously and by detecting the conventions of standard written English Introduction As a linguistic communication instructor, I frequently select composing undertakings from linguistic communication text editions to assist pupils better their authorship ability. Behaviorists, communicative, cognitive, and discourse theories could act upon composing attacks in linguistic communication text editions. Each theoretical model has provided us with a better apprehension of the multiple dimensions and intents of learning composing. A reappraisal of the developments in composing teaching method leads us to reason that we could learn composing as a agency to better lingual, rhetorical and communicative competency or as a find and cognitive procedure. The composing undertakings that we select from linguistic communication text editions and assign to pupils could reflect one or some of these pedagogical intents. As instructors, we need to oppugn and understand the pedagogical premises of text edition composing undertakings so that we can choose undertakings that will assist our pupils become confident authors and independent minds. Primary pupils come ining the secondary school degree ( high School ) are challenged non merely to larn new content in the subjects but besides to pass on this. A important figure of pupils will non hold equal academic literacy degrees to be able to make this successfully ( Jones and Bonanno, 1995 ( 1 ) . Atlhough traditionally pupils were expected to develop academic literacy accomplishments without any expressed instruction of these accomplishments, schools now recognize the progressively diverse backgrounds of their pupil populations and have put in topographic point mechanisms for assisting pupils develop their academic literacy. These have included the constitution of literacy and larning units every bit good as the demand for school course of study to turn to the instruction of composing accomplishments including communicating accomplishments. English Learning Centre of Hin Hua High School Klang, like other literacy and larning units, has been involved in a figure of collaborative undertakings with instructors involved in learning Junior One to incorporate the instruction of communicating accomplishments into the course of study ( Webb et al, 1995, Taylor and Drury, 1996 ) . These enterprises have resulted in the development of new learning stuffs and attacks every bit good as new patterns of appraisal and feedback. However, as capable country course of study are being adapted to computer-based signifiers of acquisition, it is besides necessary to see how the instruction of communicating accomplishments can be integrated into these plans or how the instruction of communicating accomplishments can be contextualized within the acquisition of capable country cognition. With the current demand for propheciuency in English Language great importance has been given to developing plans to transfuse good composing manners to the si mple scholars which aims to assist pupils go successful editors of their ain authorship. 1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW Writing accomplishments have been identified as to better pupils Ã¢â¬Ë thought. Moffett and a few others have developed cognitively sequenced course of study for simple and secondary authorship, college composing, when it is sequenced at all, tends to trust on structural or rhetorical agreements, which are neither consecutive nor cumulative. Progressions from word to condemn to paragraph to theme confuse quantitative with qualitative growing, while rhetorical sequences confront pupils with cognitive jobs of different but equal complexness. In short, from a cognitive position, most writing direction in higher instruction is consistent with that in secondary instruction: what Stephen Judy described as Ã¢â¬Å" Advanced Hodgepodge Ã¢â¬ in high school gives manner to Ã¢â¬Å" Arrogant Hodgepodge Ã¢â¬ in college. A big and turning organic structure of research, nevertheless, shows that cognitive development follows a hierarchal sequence of phases and suggests that a course of study can be consecutive organized to advance cognitive development. Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides some indispensable connexions between the cognitive abilities we expect of college pupils and a course of study that can excite those abilities Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy is one solution to the cognitive odds and ends of the authorship course of study. It allows us to sequence direction and assignments in ways that speak straight to pupils Ã¢â¬Ë developmental demands. From least to most complex, For composing direction the taxonomy provides a flexible theoretical account of what happens cognitively in the acquisition procedure Bloom described a six phase sequence: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. ( See Figure 1 ) Figure 1.0 The flow chart of Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy At each new degree, thought procedures construct on and embrace old degrees. Implicit in this construction is the premise of an go uping graduated table of trouble and fullness. Thinking at the comprehension degree is more demanding than at the cognition degree ; cognitive jobs necessitating synthesis or rating encompass all the preceding degrees. A reappraisal of Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës definitions for each systematic degree suggests what such a cognitively-based authorship class might imply. Although the focal point of each degree is cognitive, rhetorical issues of audience and intent are every bit appropriate and can be specified for any assignment. You read "REMEDIAL WRITING PROGRAMME FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS" in category "Essay examples" Most of all, the taxonomy allows us to contemplate the value and feasibleness of a cognition-based course of study in composing. Such a course of study would reflect the hierarchal dealingss of the assorted idea procedures and would assist to command for cognitive complexness in authorship and believing about falsifying natural discourse. In this signifier, composing or writing-intensive classs would consistently develop pupils Ã¢â¬Ë thought accomplishments instead than go forthing them to opportunity or, worse, blunting the author Ã¢â¬Ës still-developing ability to research and show thoughts. In short, a cognition-based course of study ensures that pupils take part to the full in utilizing composing as a manner of acquisition. 2.0 INTENDED PURPOSE The remedial programme is targeted for the simple scholars who are in the procedure of upgrading their authorship accomplishments to the pre -intermediate degree. A sum of 15 pupils are selected from the age group of 13 old ages old based on the concluding semester scrutiny consequences. The scrutiny fundamentally structured in conformity to the text edition presently used in the school course of study, New Opportunities ( Pearson Longman-Cambridge ) . Basically the ( Stiggins to foreground achievement differences between and among pupils to bring forth a, 1994 ) . School systems might desire to sort pupils in this manner so that they can be heighten their competence degree even further. The major ground for utilizing a norm-referenced trial ( NRT ) is to sort pupils. NRTs are designed on reliable rank order of pupils across a continuum of accomplishment from high winners to low winners be decently placed in remedial or talented plans. These types of trials are besides used to assist instructors choice pupils for different ability degree reading or mathematics instructional groups. As the selected pupils fall under the below mean group in Paper 1 ( Writing Assessment ) whereby there are two parts that the had to finish here: Section A Notes Expansion and SECTION B Continuous Writing ( Choose one subject out of five given ) From the academic analysis it was found that bulk pupils failed in Section B where it consists of 25 % of the entire Markss of 40 % of the Writing paper. Thus they are required to go to a 7 hr remedial programme to better their authorship accomplishments by at least 85 % . FINAL Semester: Paper 1 RESULTS ( 40 % ) Name Class SECTION ( 15 % ) Section B ( 25 % ) 1 LIM WAI MENG ELEMENTARY 8 8 2 CAROLINE TAN ELEMENTARY 7 7 3 CHONG YOKE LAN ELEMENTARY 9 6 4 LIM CHEN PHANG ELEMENTARY 8 6 5 LEE AI VIN ELEMENTARY 8 7 6 SOO HUI YING ELEMENTARY 5 5 7 TAN KUI ROU ELEMENTARY 6 8 8. TEE WAN RU ELEMENTARY 5 9 9 NG JIA JI ELEMENTARY 9 7 10 LIM SHAO YI ELEMENTARY 9 4 11 KELVIN LAI ELEMENTARY 6 8 12 TAN MAY LI ELEMENTARY 8 8 13 TOO MEI LING ELEMENTARY 5 5 14 LIM TAI YONG ELEMENTARY 6 9 15 TEO JOYCELYN ELEMENTARY 7 6 3.0 PURPOSE OF REMEDIAL WRITING PROGRAMME The grounds for the remedial plan to be initiated is to break the scholars in their authorship accomplishments and beef up it so that they have all capablenesss to be promoted to the following degree but due to certain infinitesimal factors they fail to adhere to the criterions of the pre-intermediate degree. Therefore these pupils are carefully selected utilizing the standard method to undergo the 7 hr remedial programme. In order to bore and actuate these pupils in the remedial programme an enriching lesson program is formulated to make a positive result at the terminal of the the 7 hr remedial programme. The intents for stressing authorship accomplishments are to bring forth who can grok instruction and acquisition in a positive mental properties. There is a broad organic structure of research proposing that measuring pupils Ã¢â¬Ë written public presentation is a valuable project. Not merely is an teacher able to assist a pupil Ã¢â¬Ës advancement, but besides the teacher can ease the acquisition procedure and the acquisition results by being cognizant of pupil public presentation throughout the academic session. Undeniably, 3R accomplishments are of import and necessary in day-to-day life. They are besides needed to back up the development of a knowledge-based economic system. Acknowledging these demands, the school has initiated and implemented programmes to place pupils who have non mastered the 3Rs. These programmes are designed to specifically turn to and get the better of the inability of pupils to get the hang the 3Rs. This is in line with the essentialism which instills pupils with academic cognition and character development. Among the programmes that have been implemented in schools are the Early InterAÃ vention Reading and Writing Class, Basic Skills for Reading, Writing and Counting Programme and the Literacy and Numeracy Programme at Level One. 3.1 Sub-skills of Writing Besides boring and enriching the remedial scholars with the nucleus authorship accomplishments, there are besides exposed to the importance of sub-skills in their acquisition such as: I Manipulating the book of the linguistic communication: script, spelling and punctuation. II Expressing grammatical [ syntactic and morphological ] relationships at the sentence degree III Expressing information or cognition in authorship: explicitly implicitly IV Enrichment of Vocabulary Part B 4.0 Aims of the 7-hour remedial programme The chief purpose in presenting and implementing the remedial programme peculiarly in the facet of composing accomplishments is to chiefly: to develop competences in composing accomplishments among scholars to travel from a teacher-centered didactic theoretical account to a student-centered constructivist theoretical account to get the ability to compose in a more clear, concise and acceptable mode 5.0 Instructional Design: Using the ADDIE Model to Construct Writing Competency Among Remedial Learners 5.1 Model The generic term for the five-phase instructional design theoretical account dwelling of Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.A Each measure has an result that feeds into the following measure in the sequence.A There are likely over 100+ different fluctuations of the generic ADDIE theoretical account. Instructional design purpose for a scholar -centered instead than a traditional teacher-centered attack to direction, so that effectual acquisition can take topographic point. This means that every constituent of the direction is governed by the acquisition results, which have been determined after a thorough analysis of the scholars Ã¢â¬Ë demands. This phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated ; nevertheless they provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for developing effectual and efficient direction. 5.2 ADDIE Ã¢â¬ËS Theory The ADDIE direction theoretical account for this desin is outlined by Smith and Ragan ( 1995 ) in their book entitiled Instructional design. The focal point is n 5 points Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. From this theory the analysis has proved that there was a demand to carry on remedial programme for the simple low scorers where an opportunty was given to larn and develop basic essay composing accomplishments. 6.0 Remedial Education Programme In Malaysia, the importance of remedial instruction gained attending in the sixtiess. Consequences of a pilot undertaking in nine schools between 1967 and 1970 showed a demand for remedial instruction, particularly for students in rural countries. This paved the manner for remedial instruction programmes in primary schools. The innovators in the field attended a biennial intensive class on remedial instruction in the United Kingdom. Subsequently, a national series of seminars and workshops on remedial instruction were organized. With the exclusion of little schools or under-enrolled schools, every school is allocated one remedial instruction instructor. At the school degree, a Remedial Education Committee is formed, consisting the schoolmaster, remedial instruction instructor, category instructor, capable instructor, resource Centre coordinator, and other instructors as members. The debut of a new course of study for primary schools in 1983 implied a return to the rudimentss in instruction. The ultimate end was to guarantee that no student is illiterate by the twelvemonth 2000. The execution of the remedial instruction programme for kids in Primary 1-3 is to guarantee that they master the 3Rs. Childs who have been recommended for remedial instruction are required to go to remedial categories. As of 1999, 54,000 primary school kids have undergone the intercession programme. In add-on to bettering and heightening instructor development, the Malayan authorities besides works towards bettering the course of study at school to run into the altering demands of the economic system. During the Fourth Malaysia Plan, the primary school course of study was revised with the purpose of supplying and set uping a steadfast instruction in reading, authorship, and arithmetic. This led to the development of a new course of study stressing the 3Rs. Surveies looking at the returns to instruction in Malaysia have found positive consequences in those who have had some signifier of formal instruction, thereby supplying support to the authorities guidelines on the primary course of study which emphasizes the acquisition of basic skills.Education in Malaysia, altering really quickly reacting to the emerging focal point of womb-to-tomb acquisition ; the turning accent on larning ; as opposed to making and the development of the new bringing systems 6.1 The Educational, Philosophical and Psychological foundation Elementary instruction shall take to develop the religious, moral, mental and physical capablenesss of the kid, supply him with experiences in the democratic manner of life, and instill thoughts and attitude necessary for enlightened, loyal, unsloped and utile citizenship. To accomplish these aims, simple instruction course of study shall supply for the: ingraining of religious and civic values and the development of a good citizen based on an staying religion in God and echt love of state ; preparation of the immature citizen in his rights, responsibilities and duties in a democratic society for active engagement, in a progressive and productive place and community life ; development of basic understanding about Malayan civilization, the desirable tradition and virtuousnesss of our people as indispensable necessities in achieving national consciousness and solidarity ; instruction of basic wellness cognition and the formation of desirable wellness wonts and patterns ; development of functional literacy in English as basic tools for farther acquisition ; and acquisition of cardinal cognition, attitudes, wonts, and accomplishments in scientific discipline, civics, civilization, history, geographics, mathematics, humanistic disciplines, and place economic sciences and support instruction and their intelligent application in appropriate life state of affairss. The Elementary Basic Education Curriculum focuses on the tool larning countries for an equal development of competences for larning how to larn. A The end of Instructional design is to back up the cognitive procedures that result in acquisition ( McGriff ) . The expected result of instructional design is to supply cognition and accomplishments to people. The three major larning theories are Constructivism, Behaviorism, and Cognitive. Instructional Design is based on constructivist rules. Instructional design is associated with instructional systems development ( Leshin et al, 1992 ) . An Instructional System is the Ã¢â¬Å" agreement of resources and processs to advance acquisition Ã¢â¬ ( Berger and Kam ) . 6.2 Programme Design: ADDIE Model ADDIE is a all-purpose theoretical account, which can be used to make instructional merchandises and plan design. ADDIE is the acronym for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate and summarizes the five stairss in the Instructional Design procedure. The instructional interior decorator makes determinations critical to guaranting the effectivity of the educational experience in each stage of the procedure. In conformity with the procedure betterment theoretical account, the five stages are a Ã¢â¬Å" cringle, Ã¢â¬ with the betterment of larning results as the end. Dick and Carey and Kemp ( Kemp, et.al, 1998 ) expanded the ADDIE Model into nine elements. The Dick and Carey Model uses a Reductionist attack in interrupting direction down into smaller sections aiming bomber accomplishments. The scholar is required to maestro of bomber accomplishments, which are aggregated to accomplish overall accomplishment command and learned behaviour. It provides a systematic attack to curriculum and plan design. Teaching is basically a philosophical enterprise and hence educational activity can be conceived within the context of a doctrine or worldview. The curricukum refelects the art and trade of learning. Educational engineering can supply diverseness of believing sing course of study and direction which would be curriculum theorizing. 6.2.1 Analysis Basically the nature of the pupils whom the remedial programme to be conducted are pupils who learn English Language as a 2nd linguistic communication. They are originally from Chinese talking households with a minimal exposure to English Language. Due to the outlook of the school and the educational demands in adhering English as one of the nucleus topics in school these pupils are required to hold in deepness cognition and accomplishment in it. All of them have been educated in the Chinese primary school instruction system. Based on the concluding semester scrutiny consequences 15 pupils are selected to undergo remedial programme as they fall in the boundary line line instances.The pupils get hapless composing accomplishments, while being able to build sentences reasonably good, they seem to hold great trouble in forming and developing their thoughts into the signifier of an essay that has an debut, organic structure and decision. In order to advance these pupils to the following degree that is the pre-intermediate stage from their beginning simple degree the English Language Department found it critical for them to go to a 7-hour remedial programme in order to happen solution to this state of affairs. All of them need to foster develop their authorship accomplishments in term of coherence and coherency ; clip and pattern. 6.2.2 Design The chief design end for our programme would be on the cognitive schemes of being able to develop an thought for composing since all of them com e from a really similar background and have basic sentence composing accomplishments. Besides the development of linguistic communication in the mechanics of sentence building such as sentence structure, grammar, construction, etc given precedence. R.Gagne ( 1965 ) divided larning into 5 classs: Verbal or declaratory cognition, rational accomplishments, cognitive schemes, attitudes and psychomotor accomplishments. The acquisition ends are besides in connexion to these classs to seek to set educational value behind our ends. At the same clip the end besides reflects competencies lineations by Benjamin Bloom ( Bloom,1956 ) . These include: Knowledge, Conprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis an Evaluation. These give our ends cogency whereby competences are incorporated in conveying about concrete undertaking for scholars that we assign in order to accomplish their ends. Hence in the rating stage, we can utilize this facet to happen out the cogency and the achievement of the scholars in implementing the programme. Learning Goals and Type of Learning Aim Standard GAGNE Ã¢â¬ËS DOMAIN BLOOM Ã¢â¬ËS TAXANOMY Learners will place an essay subject and 3 sub-topics Standards established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Cognitive schemes Synthesis Learners will be able to compose a 3 paragraph essay with an debut, 2 bomber subjects to include their sentiments, thoughts and decision Standards established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Declaration Cognition Intellectual Skills Synthesis Evaluation Application Learners will be able to utilize the library and Handouts to research printed information on their subjects Standards established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Procedural cognition ( declaration cognition ) Cognition Learners will be able to utilize proper mechanics of grammar sentence structure Standards established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Intellectual Skills Application Learners will be able to show their subjects in category Standards established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Declaration cognition Comprehension 6.2.3 Development In order to set up a accessible remedial programme for the simple scholars, we English instructors have developed a remedial programme which will set about a 7 hr larning procedure. The instructors from the same degree have brainstormed and come up with a class content for the 7-hour instruction and larning programme. The instructors from the same instruction degree are the best individual to make the lesson as they deal with the same competence degree of pupils all the clip and are considered experts in their country. Besides this, they will be able to do he printed and computing machine stuffs and added measure of acquiring the right content for the degree. On top of that since they have already been learning in the same range so they will be doubtless familiar in the procedure of instruction and steering the scholars in order to do the remedial programme a success. 6.2.3. ( 1 ) Procedure The remedial programme would be in the English medium since the chief aim is to better composing accomplishments among simple scholars. The programme consists of 6 regular Sessionss and followed by a reappraisal and a trial twenty-four hours. Each hr is scheduled to be conducted for 60 proceedingss 6.2.4 Execution Further to the development to the development the instructors would be equipped with integral class content for he programme. The faculty would be prepared in balance with the clip frame allotted for the programme. Any instructor who is selected for this undertaking should be ready to set about the instruction procedure based on the strategy that has been prepared. Al cubic decimeter 15 pupils will be instructed to go to the programme for 7 hours. These are the assorted facet of execution emphasized in the learning procedure: 6.2.5 Evaluation The rating stage consists of two parts: formative and summational. Formative rating is present in each phase of the ADDIE procedure. Summational rating consists of trials designed for sphere specific criterion-related referenced points and supplying chances for feedback from the users. Chiefly the rating is done in two parts. The first stage will be the rating of pupil work based on the aims in the Ã¢â¬Å" Learning ends and type of larning Ã¢â¬ listed above. Students will be rated by their instructor based on the A, B, C, F standards set by the English Department. An Angstrom is first-class work, B is mean, and C will intend pupil demands betterment. An F would intend that pupil failed the composing appraisal with below 60 % of grade. Students will be evaluated at each phase of the class. The section will utilize this rating in order to happen out how they might necessitate to modify the programme in the hereafter. A summational rating will be conducted as outlined by Smith and Ragan ( 1999, p.352 ) . Those writers explain that in order to measure the effectivity, entreaty, and efficiency of direction, a aggregation, analysis and sum-up of informations on pupils ia indispensable. In our designed programme an test is built to entree pupils of their command on the abilities taught during the programme.Students are to demo their capablenesss in their apprehension and cognition taught to them by finishing the set of prep targeted to them. Students will be graded on from 1 to 5 for their abilities in each of the undermentioned subdivisions: Student name Student able to take a subject n sub-topics Student able to utilize press releases information Student able to finish the essay Score dated from 1 to 5 1: hapless 2: Able to understand the authorship construct with some counsel 3: Able to finish the undertaking with aid and support 4: Able to understand the construct and finish the undertaking separately A pre-test and post-test can mensurate how good learners achieved the larning aims. However, it normally takes more clip and attempt to mensurate things such as whether the scholars will utilize their preparation. This rating stage can widen for months. Upon completion of the programme the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë feedback will be collected to further estimate the success of the programme. Questions are besides answered on a graduated table of 1 to 5. 1 is low and 5 is high. The standard inquiries constructed are as below: Were you satisfied with the content of this class? Were you able to understand the instructor Ã¢â¬Ës account? Were you able to set into pattern elements that you learnt? Did you fond the class interesting? On a graduated table of 1 to 5, what is your general feeling about the class? Part C 7.0 REVIEWER Ã¢â¬ËS COMMENTS Below is the sum-up of the feedback received from two of the Senior Teachers from the English Language Department of Hin Hua High School sing the 7hour remedial programme on composing accomplishments. Reviewer 1: Mdm Annaletchumy Reviewer 2: Ms Sastina The strengths and failings of the freshly developed Remedial Programme for Elementary Students Strengths 1. Learning by actively take parting in group treatment 2. Encouraging pupils to build their ain thoughts and cognition of the subject 3. Student-centered instead than teacher or subject-centered 4. Teaching assistance contributed to pupil Ã¢â¬Ës visual image on the subject given 5. Suitable to student Ã¢â¬Ës development degree 6. Group work enables pupils to self Ã¢â¬â express, to be self-assured and self- consciousness 7. Promote teacher to develop pupil Ã¢â¬Ës originative thought abilities 8. Stressing the construct of group work and peer rating where no pupil Is left behind 9. Promoting the co-operation among pupils and instructor positively 10. Enables pupil to hold a positive mentality in originative authorship Failings 1. Unsuitability of activities for crowded room 2. Lack of stuffs used as assistance for pre-writing undertaking 3. Lack of instructor Ã¢â¬Ës rating on the first stage of composing 4. Certain undertaking may take more clip than the planned clip 5. Peer rating on composing inappropriate attack for simple scholars 8.0 Summary of Review Summarized below are some of the achievements and challenges I personally went through in building the remedial programme: 8.1 Strengths 8.1.1 Improved pupils attitude and motive Students are mentally prepared to take part in the programme because pupils agree to a peculiar gait, work load, and larning environment from the beginning. 8.1.2 Making Learning Communities: Classs map as Teach communities both teacher and their pupils benefit Ã¢â¬â in both societal and academic countries Ã¢â¬â from working with each other over a full programme. 8.1.3 Extinguishing Stigma of Dependency: The construct group work and peer rating removed the stigma of being excessively dependent on the instructor Writing stuffs. 8.2 Failings 8.2.1 Students engagement Some scholars will non lend in due to the deficiency of involvement or proficiency 8.2.2 Stipulated Time The period allotted might non be sufficient for certain undertaking. Thus this will hold or sometimes disrupt the whole programme construction. 8.2.3 Truly in equal marker Some scholars will non adhere by the regulations set in equal marker when it comes to appraisal. Favoritisms and ego -centered will act upon the observation 9.0 Decision It is expected that by go toing this theoretical account of English remedial direction it will be good to low English winners. Students will derive well in grammar and vocabulary and they will besides bit by bit better in their overall English competency. Based on the remarks from the referees it can be concluded that scholars will be efficaciously better their English authorship accomplishments through the prepared class faculty for the remedial programme. A well-designed class will decidedly give them encouragement and support to promote their English proficiency and be prepared for the following degree, pre=intermediate. 10.0 PART D 7 HOUR LESSON PLAN REMEDIAL PROGRAMME Ã¢â¬â ENGLISH LANGUAGE Purposes: by the terminal of my lesson, pupils will be able to compose a full-length essay on Endangered Species and better their attack of composing schemes. Auxiliary purpose: pupils will be able to better their usage of associating words in controlled and less controlled authorship activities on Endangered Speciess Evidence: ( How will I know I have achieved the purpose? ) Students will be able to finish effect and short authorship scheme undertakings: Quizzes, Test Students will be able to finish their group presentation and compose a full length essay on Endangered Species. Materials: Course Content prepared by Elementary instructors from the English Department of Hin Hua High School, Klang. 1. New Opportunities Students Book ( Module 7- Endangered Species ) 2. Multimedia devices 3. Cultural consciousness Context: Endangered Speciess Anticipated Problems Solutions 1.Students have no cognition of Endangered Species Promote them to look at the exposure 2.Students are non able to do connexion with the subject Promote them to work in groups 3.Students find composing within the clip frame really demanding Set and maintain rigorous clip bounds 4. Students may non understand the right vocabulary use for the undertaking Pre-teach the vocabulary before pupils do the undertakings 5. Students may non be able to compose much about Endangered Speciess Get them to work in groups and portion thoughts. Premises 1. Some pupils have cognition of Endangered Species and hold read about them 2. Students have cognition of the extinction of animate beings. 3. Some pupils have had exposure through the media and cyberspace on the Endangered Species development. 4. Students have sufficient vocabulary to get down the authorship. 5. Students understand and use some linking words and sequence connections taught. Timing ( mins ) Phase name Procedure Purpose Interaction 30 Ice- Breaker Teacher sticks up assorted sorts of carnal images on the whiteboard and asks pupils to do a conjectures on animate beings of endangered species. T negotiations about the images and T proctors activity. T gets feedback on activity and writes a few conjectures on WB To warm up the category and to set up a game- like ambiance To research around the category, to be introduced to the subject of endangered species, bit by bit To interchange positions for their picks with grounds given T -S T Ã¢â¬â Second S Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second S Ã¢â¬â Second 30 Pre-writing ( a ) After feedback, T gives a presentation on several species of endangered animate beings and their characters and populating wonts utilizing PPT ( Giant Pandas, North China Tiger, African Elephant, Dolphin and Gorillas ) T prepares a cartridge holder of picture Ã¢â¬Å" ICE AGE Ã¢â¬ in order to steer the pupils to discourse on the grounds of people killing animate beings To set up context and to utilize scholar Ã¢â¬Ës conventional cognition of the animate beings on the whole to unite it with the lesson Ã¢â¬Ës subject T Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second 30 Pre-writing ( B ) I. After feedback, T gives each group a set of images of animate beings and asks them to place the endangered species. two. After feedback, T advises scholars to look at it complete and this clip, to happen out why are these animate beings in danger and the grounds for it. To advance group work to place the images, to work out context in groups and to trip bottom-up reading accomplishments To work out in context intent and audience, in groups and trip top-down reading accomplishments S Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second S Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second 30 Pre- Teaching Vocabulary After feedback, T holds the attending of Ss to the unknown word in the context ; T elicits their significance in context, utilizing mini- lexicon from the New Opportunities Students Book, To pre-teach unknown vocabulary, to work out its significance in context, utilizing the dictionary and to pattern emphasis, modulation and beat T Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second S Ã¢â¬â Second 30 Pre Ã¢â¬â Writing ( degree Celsius ) After feedback, T assigns two paragraphs for each group to work on, and hands out a wh-comprehension undertaking to finish for their paragraphs Ss are to come to the w/b and put the strips of paper one under the other To pattern reading accomplishments, such as scanning and reading for item To reorder the strips of paper on the w/b, to show it as a whole, and to utilize it as a springboard for the brainstorming session S -S T Ã¢â¬â Second S Ã¢â¬â Second 30 Brainstorming: T asks Ss to believe why some animate beings are endangered and ways of assisting the endangered animate beings T prepares a cartridge holder of picture Ã¢â¬Å" ICE AGE Ã¢â¬ in order to steer the pupils to discourse on the grounds of people killing animate beings During the activity, T goes about, proctors and provides aid where necessary. To trip their conventional cognition of the endangered animate beings, to unite their scheme to culturally targeted subjects All thoughts are to be brainstorm in their group for bring forthing bill of exchanges S Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second S Ã¢â¬â Second 60 While Ã¢â¬â Writing ( Rough Draft ) Peer rating Thymine informs them that they will hold to compose their ain thoughts down, in order they like on a piece of paper, -one group member will compose the bill of exchange and the others will give aid and counsel. During the activity, T goes around proctors and provides aid Ss exchange documents with the other squad and give remarks on each other Ã¢â¬Ës work To compose a unsmooth bill of exchange, to choose thoughts and to set up a point of view To advance coaction amongst group members, to peer-evaluate, to offer support and counsel with written work S Ã¢â¬â Second S Ã¢â¬â Second 60 While Ã¢â¬â Writing ( First Draft ) Peer rating T advises S to rewrite the essay every bit good as select which thoughts will travel to each paragraph, in their squads T tells them that one of them will compose and the others will assist out After composing, T tells Ss to trade documents and give them to the other group to remarks To set up information, to construction the text ( White and Arndt 1991 ) To work collaboratively to accomplish an purpose To advance co-operation to accomplish a end, to peer evaluate, to react to the first bill of exchange and to give feedback on the content ( Raimes cited in Gaith 2002 ) T Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second S -S T Ã¢â¬â Second S -S 60 While Ã¢â¬â Writing ( Second Draft ) Editing T advises S to rewrite the bill of exchanges, much better, now, they Ã¢â¬Ëve got the feedback from other groups After composing, T tells Ss to read out what they Ã¢â¬Ëve written To better the accomplishment of authorship ( Charles 1990 ) To redact, to proof-read content S Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second 60 Post Ã¢â¬â Writing ( Finished Draft ) T advises Ss to get down their single authorship on the foolscap paper provided T gives Ss appraisal Markss based the authorship produced To show their pieces of complete authorship S Ã¢â¬â Second T Ã¢â¬â Second How to cite REMEDIAL WRITING PROGRAMME FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
To be a productive member of society takes a lot of skill and commitment for some people. Some people never become productive members of society. For others, it can be quite natural. What I consider to be A productive member of society is someone who does something useful with their day. If they have a job, they are on time for that job and are there when they are supposed to be. If theyÃ¢â¬â¢re a mother, they are being a productive member of society if they are taking their children to school, making sure they donÃ¢â¬â¢t go hungry, know right from wrong, etc. If theyÃ¢â¬â¢re a student, they will be on time, do the work, and engage in their courses if they are A productive member of society. An amazing example of a productive member of society is my grandmother. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s been a student, a mother, and worked for over thirty years. We will write a custom essay sample on Productive members of society or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She has had many jobs at places such as women shelters, treatment centers, etc. My grandmother, Dorothy has two children and four grandchildren. IÃ¢â¬â¢m her oldest grandchild, my brother is her youngest grandchild and my grandfather passed away years ago. My Grandmother is one of sixteen children! So I have many relatives that I really enjoy spending time with. The Majority of my relatives are productive members of society, not all, but most of them. My grandmother is currently retired. She has paid her debt to society and I believe she is overall pretty happy with her life. She has struggled through abuse at a residential school as a child, and also struggled with addiction and breast cancer. Somehow she overcame all of it, my grandmother is such a strong woman, and for that, she is my hero.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Positive Reinforcement to Increase Academic Performance Reinforcement is the means by which behavior is increased. Also known as consequences, positive reinforcement adds something that will make it more likely the behavior will occur. Negative reinforcement is when something is removed, it is more likely to continue. The Reinforcement Continuum Reinforcement happens all the time. Some reinforcement occurs because the item or activity is naturally reinforcing. At the highest end of reinforcement, reinforcers are social or intrinsic, such as praise or self-esteem. Young children, or children with low cognitive or social functioning, may require primary reinforcers, such as food or preferred items. During the course of instruction primary reinforcers should be paired with secondary reinforcers. Primary Reinforcers: Primary reinforcers are things that reinforce behavior that provide immediate gratification, such as food, water or a preferred activity. Often very young children or children with severe disabilities need primary reinforcers in order to be engaged in an educational program. Food can be a powerful reinforcer, especially preferred food, such as fruit or candy. Often young children with severe disabilities or very low social functioning are started with preferred foods, but they need to be paired with secondary reinforcers, especially praise and social interaction. Physical stimulation, like piggyback rides or airplane rides are primary reinforcers that pair the therapist or teacher with the reinforcer. One of the principal goals of a therapist or teacher is for the therapist or teacher to become a secondary reinforcer for the child. When the therapist becomes a reinforcer for the child, it becomes easier for the child to generalize secondary reinforcers, like praise, across environments. Pairing primary reinforcers with tokens is also a powerful way to replace primary reinforcers with secondary reinforcers. A student earns tokens toward a preferred item, activity or perhaps food as part of their educational or therapy program. The token is also paired with secondary reinforcement, like praise, and moves the child toward appropriate behavior. Secondary Reinforcers:Ã Secondary reinforcers are learned reinforcers. Awards, praise and other social reinforcers are all learned. If students have not learned the value of secondary reinforcement, such as praise or rewards, they need to be paired with primary reinforcers: a child earns a preferred item by earning stars. Soon the social status and attention that go with stars will transfer to the stars, and other secondary reinforcers like stickers and awards will become effective. Children with autism spectrum disorders lack an understanding of social interaction and do not value praise or other secondary reinforcement because they lack Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to understand that another human has emotions, thoughts and is motivated by personal self-interest. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder need to be taught the value of secondary reinforcers by having them paired with preferred items, food, and preferred activities. Intrinsic Reinforcement: The final goal of reinforcement is for students to learn to evaluate themselves and reward themselves with intrinsic reinforcement, the feeling a person gets from a job well done, for successfully completing a task. Still, we need to remember that people do not spend 12 years in college, medical school and residency just for the honor of being addressed as doctor. They are also hoping to earn the big bucks, and rightly so. Still, when intrinsic rewards accompany employment, as in being a special education teacher, they may compensate for some of the lack of status and income. The ability to discover intrinsic reinforcement in many activities that lead to the big bucks does, however, bode well for future success. Socially Valid Reinforcers Socially valid reinforcers refer to reinforcement schedules that are age appropriate. Seeking reinforcers that do not set students apart from typically developing peers in their age group is really part of providing FAPE- a Free, Appropriate Public Education- a legal underpinning of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 1994 (IDEIA.) For students in middle school or high school, putting Super Mario stickers on the backs of their hands is not age appropriate. Of course, students with the most difficult behavior, or those who do not respond to secondary reinforcement need to have reinforcers that can be paired with social reinforcement and faded as more socially acceptable reinforcement can take its place. Socially valid reinforcement can also help students understand what is cool or acceptable to typical peers. Rather than letting middle school aged students watch a Telletubbies video as a reinforcer, how about a National Geographic video about bears? Or perhaps anime cartoons? Identifying High Preference Reinforcers In order for reinforcement to be effective, it has to be something the student or students find reinforcing. Stars on a chart might work for typical 2nd graders, but not for second graders with a severe disability. They certainly wont work for high school students, unless they get to trade them for something they really want. There are several ways to discover reinforcers. Ask Parents: If you teach students who are not communicating, students with severe cognitive disabilities or autism spectrum disorders, you should be sure to interview parents before the students come to you, so you have some of their favorite things. Often offering a favorite toy for a brief period is a strong enough reinforcer to keep a young student on task.An Informal Preference Assessment: Lay a number of things that children of the same age enjoy playing with and watch what a student shows the most interest in. You may seek similar toys. Also, other items that have shown to be of interest, like toys that light up when you squeeze them, or accordion tubes that make noises when you pull them can be shown and modeled to students to see if they gain their attention. These items are available through catalogs that specialize in providing resources for children with disabilities, such as Abilitations.Observation: What does a child choose to use? What activities do they seem to prefer ? I had a child in an early intervention program who had a pet turtle. We had a nicely painted model turtle of vinyl, and he would work for an opportunity to hold the turtle. With older children, you will find they may have a Thomas the Tank Engine lunch bag, or a Cinderella Umbrella that they cherish, and Thomas and Cinderella may be good partners for reinforcement. Ask the Students: Find out what they find the most motivating. One way to do that is through Reinforcement Menus thatÃ offer students things they can choose. When you collect them from a group, you can decide which items seem to be the most popular and arrange to make them available. A choice chart with the choices they have made can be very helpful, or you can create individual choice charts as I have for middle school students on the Autism Spectrum. If you want to control or limit the number of times they can make each choice (especially computer time, when you have limited computers for a large group) you could also make tickets with strips at the bottom to tear off, a little like the postings for used cars at the Laundromat.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Treating De Quervains Syndrome at Home It is important to note that treating De Quervains syndrome, also known as gamers thumb, at home or without the direction of a doctor is possible, however, severe or chronic De Quervains syndrome should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider since, if left untreated, De Quervains syndrome can result in permanent injury and a loss of your range of motion and grip strength. Treating De Quervains syndrome should begin when symptoms first appear and continue as long as the symptoms persist or the cause is still relevant. Treatment should be done leading up towards a doctors appointment or during your data gathering activities while trying to determine the cause of your De Quervains syndrome. Treatments and their effectiveness should be noted within this data. The first step in treating De Quervains syndrome at home is taking care of your general health. Chronic inflammation affects a lot of people and can contribute to or hamper your recovery from most repetitive stress injuries, including De Quervains syndrome. General Health To make your De Quervains syndrome treatments the as effective as they can be you should be in good health and at a healthy body weight. Being overweight contributes to chronic inflammation and affects your circulation as well. And without good circulation, your body cant repair itself effectively. So maintaining a good circulatory system through cardiovascular exercise helps. Hydration Staying hydrated is important as well. A good rule of thumb to stay hydrated is to take your weight in pounds, slide the decimal to the left so you lose the ones column, and drink that many ounces of water. If you weigh 250 pounds then you should drink at least 25 ounces of water a day. Rest The best way to treat your De Quervains syndrome at home is to identify what activities are causing the repetitive stress and avoid doing them while allowing your wrist and thumb ample time to rest and heal. Being able to take a couple weeks off and not use your hand for much is almost always impossible. So at least try to reduce the length of time, the number of repetitions or strength required to perform the tasks causing the repetitive stress. If at all possible avoid repetitive motions of any type with the hand and wrist. Ice One of the most effective treatments for any inflammation, like De Quervains syndrome, is using ice. Ice reduces swelling and relieves pain. Use an ice pack regularly to reduce your inflammation following a 15 minute on - 15 minute off pattern. A cool pack, one that isnt as cold as frozen ice, can be kept on longer. Follow the manufacturers recommendation on these items. Over the Counter Medication The inflammation associated with De Quervains syndrome can be reduced with the use of over the counter anti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. They are also effective at managing pain. Liniments and pain relieving balms can help temporarily relieve your pain, but often do not reduce the inflammation. Whether you use a pill or a topical pain reliever it is important to remember that they are simply masking your pain. The problem is still there and if you continue to stress the area while the pain is masked you can further injure yourself. Stabilization/Immobilization When treating De Quervains syndrome at home you may want to consider wearing a splint to immobilize the wrist and thumb that is being afflicted. A splint will completely immobilize your thumb and/or wrist allowing it to heal without further stressing the area. If complete immobilization is not practical then stabilization may help. To stabilize the wrist and thumb for De Quervains syndrome a brace or compression wrap is used to support the wrist and thumb, especially when gripping. This provides more support to the area reducing some of the stress and range of motion you would normally receive. But it does not impede you from all repetitive stress or further injuring yourself. Exercise Physical therapy is a vital part of treating and recovering from De Quervains syndrome. A doctor or physical therapist can provide you with an exercise regiment to help your particular condition and instruct you in the proper execution of those exercises. A couple of easy stretches can be performed on your own, however. These stretches should only be done a couple of times a day and you should not experience any pain when doing them. If they are hurting it may be time to see a doctor for your De Quervains syndrome. Stretching the muscle between the thumb and the palm is a good exercise. The inflammation and irritation of the tendons in De Quervains syndrome often destabilize the base of the thumb. It becomes weak and difficult to properly use. You can help relieve the stress at the base thumb joint by stretching and massaging the muscles and tissues that hold it in place. To perform this stretch grab your afflicted thumb with your other hand and pull the thumb away from your palm. Hold the stretch for ten to fifteen seconds and then release. Let the sensation die down completely before stretching again. Perform this stretch with the hands below the level of your heart for better circulation during the stretch. Massaging the web of muscle and tissue between the thumb and palm is beneficial as well. Next stretch the tendons that control the thumb and pass through the wrist, the ones causing the problem. Hold your hand in a relaxed fist and flex your wrist downward much like in Finkelsteins test. Dont flex your wrist to the point of pain, however. Just give it a relaxing stretch for ten to fifteen seconds and then release. These stretches should be done once or twice a day and no more. The area has very small muscles that can easily be overworked. If you strain those muscles and your thumb starts hurting give it a day or two before you begin stretching again. The stretching will have a cumulative relaxing effect on your De Quervains syndrome over the course of a couple of weeks. It is important to note that you should not stretch any part of your body when it is cold. So do not stretch your thumb after icing it or when under the effects of a pain reliever since it is easy to overstretch things in those cases.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Strategic Management of Mango - Essay Example The company has recently introduced two new product lines, an initiative that is consistent with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s innovative image. Through these new product lines, the company is hoped to triumph the marketplace. Mango is a company that is characterised by strong corporate values and beliefs. These values and beliefs, translated in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate strategy have been instrumental in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to fight off competition and to ensure its survivability in tremendous economic crisis. The company in its years of operation has been able to develop effective communication systems and business processes. The company has used the rapidly evolving technology to its advantage by adopting these technological advancements in its business processes. Although the company is in a far better position than its competitors, but some of its biggest rivals like ZARA have successfully managed to build a business model that has allowed it to be highly responsive to its e nvironment, along with nimble and flexible operational design. These capabilities of ZARA have made it the market leader of this industry, but Mango, in no ways can be classified as a company which is far behind its market leader. The company has a very efficient logistics system that is augmenting its strong suppliers and distributions network. The company uses its own stores and franchises to reach out to its customers; however, recently the company has started using its website to further penetrate into the online market. The company has also launched two new product lines, one targeting men and the other targeting VIPs. These new product lines along with a mature product line of female wear are presumed to generate the future profitability of the company. Advantages of the Business Model of Mango: The most important aspects of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business model have been its logistics system. This system has proved to be a defining point for the company. This logistics system h as helped the company to deliver its finished goods from production centres to distribution centres in 4 days. Even though this is not better than ZARAÃ¢â¬â¢s four day delivery system but still it is very close to the best practice of the industry leader. The company has a strong network of professionals, who are working very hard to anticipate the future of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market. Other than this the training methods of the company for the point of sale employees has been very effective in creating customer loyalty. Mango has been very effective when it comes to managing its relationship with its suppliers, who are spread across the globe. The systems in place have been very helpful in integrating the value chain of Mango with its suppliers and other channel partners. The most important reason for companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success has been its ability to take innovative initiatives. Recently the company has initiated a method through which it would cut out its distribution activity f rom its value chain. In this initiative the manufactured products would be directly sent to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s selling points without going to the distribution centres, this means that these finished products would leave directly from the manufacturersÃ¢â¬â¢ factory to the stores. This will enable the company to implement its cost cutting strategy with greater